The above simulation was created using d3.forceSimulation in D3 (Data Driven Documents). The d3.js-force JavaScript library uses a velocity-Verlet integration (a numerical method for integrating Newton's equations of motion) to stimulate nodes as charged particles whose motion is constrained by links to other nodes.

d3.force is utilized here to simulate particle motion within a freeze-casting suspension. Nodes ("particles") are constrained within a box ("mold").

Creating a stable suspension is the first step of the freeze-casting process. Adjust the sliders below to change parameters and simulate resulting motion; Click on a specific parameter for more information.